ideas of delabs

Analog Design to Handheld Computing. Ergonomics and GUI Usability. 30+ years in Electronic Product Design. 80s EE Design Notes, 90s EE Web Logs. - delabs Technologies

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Thursday, December 06, 2018

Non Inverting Amplifier - Op-Amp Designs

The input impedance of this module is very high, if U1 is OP07 it is in mega/giga ohms, use CA3140 or LF356 fet input opamps to get 1 tera ohm input impedance, but for high gains OP07 is better as it is ultra low offset. This is a good amplifier for sensor outputs, as it is a DC Circuit.

Non Inverting Amplifier - Op-Amp Designs

The zener diodes protect the opamp inputs, R1 limits current during high voltage inputs and R1 and C1 form a filter to remove some ac components, C1 should be a plastic type as ceramic and electrolytic caps are leaky.

Non-Inverting Amplifier - Op-Amp Circuits

A large C1 will slow the response time, the sum of Ri + Rf should be greater than 5k so that output is not loaded. Do not connect output to voltages more than vcc/vdd, it will blow Opamp.


Tuesday, December 04, 2018

LED Running lights CD4017

This Demo shows LM555 running a CD4017 Counter to drive Ten Leds sequentially. Red Button Powers LED Running Lights, 555 Clock is counted by CD4017. Adjust R2, See ToolTips.

This is a demo of the standard LED running lights that many know of, the only thing different is that you can try out the project on this page by a javascript simulation i made. This Demo shows LM555 running a CD4017 Counter to drive Ten Leds sequentially.

Screenshot of gadget

LED Running lights CD4017

This is a Gadget Tutorial for this Article LED Running lights CD4017.

Press the Red button below to turn on the circuit press it again to turn off, i have put a new battery and did the wiring for you. The Red LED will flash according to the state of the 555 output at pin 3. The decade counter-divider CD4017 has 10 outputs, for every low to high transition, rising edge, the counter advances one LED. After going one full circle the the first LED lights again and it goes on.....

Sunday, December 02, 2018

Digital Timers Counters and Clocks

Timers and Counters along with Analog Process Controllers formed the front end of Industrial Automation. Even today automation systems and control panels use analog timers and electromechanical counters. These are Indispensable. Analog + Digital combination controllers came next which were little bigger and offered better stability. They had thumbwheel switches as user interface in place of potentiometers.

Digital Timers, Counters and Clocks

uP based Systems with chips like 8085 came after that, they consumed more power and were big in size. The coming of Cmos uC like 80C31 made Process Instrumentation Small and SMD made even 48 X 48 DIN sizes possible. Now Analog and uC based designs are used in different applications. Digital Hybrids and uP instruments are not used as they were Transient-Technology Methods.

Digital Timers Counters and Clocks

These Digital Tutors are interactive and started with very basic JavaScript and CSS. You can operate the controls and see the Truth Table and Results in LED Displays. Controls include DIP Switches and Push Buttons.

Wednesday, October 03, 2018

Reliable Robust Electronic Products

Use a Servo Stabilizer or CVT Constant Voltage Transformer or at least an Isolation Transformer. The First Defense form HV Surges, Spikes.

High Voltage Polyester & Polypropylene Metallized Capacitors in Stepdown Supplies should be Fire Retardant & Self Healing with a MOV too.

EE Design Library - Electronic Product Design Resource

Reliable Robust Electronic Products

Tropicalized means immunity or resistance of an equipment in conditions of varied Temperature, RH, Insects, Fungus, Brine, small life form.

Monday, October 01, 2018

Ostermiller Basic and Scientific Calculator

Scientific Expression or Formula Calculations. Twenty Transaction Memory and Tape, Different bases like Decimal and Octal, Logic Math, Functions, Constants.

Ostermiller Basic and Scientific Calculator

Deriving knowledge and inspiration from ostermiller.org. The GUI and Skin Modifications were done. This Scientific Calculator was ported to iGoogle with a new UI by delabs.

Screenshot

Scientific Calculator

Source Code - delabs-dapj - scientific-calculator

It has Brackets to build your own math equation. Scientific Functions like Trigonometric, Hyperbolic, Logarithmic.Memory (cookies), A Paper Trail or Tape for Equation and Result History.

Friday, June 08, 2018

Engineering Management Equations

Call it Quotes or Ideas or Instructions, these are thoughts that came from me from the past tech experiences of over twenty years.

Technologies should scale with Infrastructure. Buildings cannot stress the Foundations meant for. Traffic proportional to Road Width. Sync. Software should not overwhelm or Overload Hardware.

Management of Engineering and Technology

Raw Materials - Components - Finished Products. The Entire Processing and Design Chain has to improve, if the final Product has to Shine.

Friday, May 04, 2018

Digital Logic Probe Circuits

Digital Test and Measurement Starts with Logic Probe - Any point in a Digital Circuit can be High, Low, Float means TriState. The High Low in a 5V CMOS circuit is just 0V and 5V. In TTL and ECL it is much different

TTL Pulse Reading Logic Probe - This circuit can monitor TTL logic levels. TTL compatible CMOS logic families can also be monitored.

The Test Point could also be Pulsing or have analog values and waveforms, as in Mixed Signal Chips. Here are Logic Probe Circuits you can Build in your own Home Lab.

Digital Logic Probe Circuits

Simple Logic Probe - Here is a simple Logic Probe using a single chip. The circuits have been designed for the CD4001 CMOS quad NOR gate and CD4011 CMOS NAND gate

Andy Collinson - Logic Probe - This logic probe uses a single CMOS 4001 IC and can display high, low and pulsing outputs.

Friday, April 06, 2018

Eco Green Digital Alarm Clock

You can set Five Alarms with Ten Selectable Musical Sounds and a small Text memo. Digital Alarm Clock Web Gadget with Musical Alarms.

Common Alarm Clock Manual for Both Versions

This is an Alarm Clock Simulation, Eco Green is to inspire saving energy and keeping earth Green, Clean and last longer.

This is an experimental gadget, usable but not easy. This gadget can demonstrate how difficult ergonomics is, when you need to press buttons in sequence to get an electronic gadget to perform.

alarm-clock at GitHub

Screenshot

Digital Alarm Clock

This can be used to preset Five Alarms with a small text memo, The Alarm will remind after set time elapses with musical sounds. It also shows the Time and date.

Digital Alarm Clock Web Widget with Musical Alarms - See Source of this page and use the iframe code to integrate in your blog or site.

The Alarms once set, repeats every day. When the user visits the page containing this gadget, it reminds him of the missed memos for the past three hours. Web Gadget for Google Homepage or Website.

Thursday, April 05, 2018

Digital Dice Cubes

Dual Digital Dice Gadget - Click the Dice Cube, Wait, It will Display a Random Result, A random generation for rolling and one for showing value.

Screenshot of Widget

Digital Dice

Dual Digital Dice Cube, It will Display a Random Result for the 6 faces of the Dice, It has both a Cube Animation and Digital Readout for Two Dice.

Tuesday, April 03, 2018

Digital Alarm Clock Gadget

An Alarm Clock with Musical Alarms. This Web Widget was for the iGoogle Homepage, A Web-page or even a blog.  It was an Experiment in User Interface in small a small Facia or Front Panel.

You can set Five Alarms with Ten Selectable Musical Sounds and a small Text memo.- 2005

Digital Alarm Clock Gadget

The Project Page digital-alarm-clock

The simulation is as close as possible to a uC based Clock which you could build, The GUI is more like a electronic gadget than a Software Application. That should charge you to build your Alarm Clock today.

Digital Alarm Clock Web Widget with Musical Alarms

Usability and Ergonomics Research

This gadget has established usability problems. The were intended and demonstrated. It was an attempt to show the limits and strain associated with push button and key controls to operate an electronic equipment.

Many Apps, Appliance and Gizmos are constrained with a small control interface size, these pose a challenge for the User Interface design. I myself have problems with the keyboard phones and remote control. This can be seen even in the puzzling Monitor OSD controls in comparison to the easy analog Pot controls of old CGA/EGA Monitors.

Controls should be easy like the water tap or power switch. Not like a Puzzle, Maze or Quiz.

Technology needs to make things simple. Keep controls minimum and Human Friendly means (analog). A human Being is a "Real Time Analog Machine". This gadget is a continuing experiment in ergonomics.

Tuesday, March 13, 2018

Instrumentation Amp - Op-Amp Designs

This is the best Instrumentation OpAmp, Great CMRR, ensure supply has no ripple and keep analog and digital grounds separate. Ri can be replaced with a trimpot and resistor to alter gain. Connect a preset ends to pins 1 and 8 and preset wiper to VCC for Offset Null when high gains are configured.

Instrumentation Amp - Op-Amp Designs

Instrumentation Amp - Op-Amp Designs

The Input zeners and diodes form a protective clamp for all voltages above VCC-VDD. If supply is changed to +12 -12 change zeners to 12V zeners. Use similar Zeners at output to protect Output from being zapped by over-voltages or high energy - voltage or frequency transients. Add plastic capacitors across Rf for damping AC operation or ripple. Also avoid floating inputs by providing a bias, till you connect it to a sensor; or you will see electrometer like effects.


Monday, March 05, 2018

Analog Interface for PC Ports

Here are examples of an analog Input and Output interface for Printer Port. There are two visual basic demo programs with source to test out idea.

Analog Interface for PC Ports

USB and wireless interface to PC may be more in vogue, but a higher speed is possible in printer-port. For analog and digital fast data acquisition, PC cards to full Access to PC bus are the best choice.

Analog Interface for PC Ports

The Sensors and Actuators interfaced with a computer form a basic automation system or even a robot. So learning to interface Sensors (input devices like a thermocouple or pH sensor) and Actuators (output devices like a motor or heater) with a PC is the best way to start. It is by studying examples and experimenting cautiously can one learn the science, book reading alone will never help.

See the Hardware Book connector details, cables, adapters, etc. The RS232-Serial Port, The Parallel- Centronics port, The USB-firefire port are good to start with. Then you can interface by LAN or Wireless- LAN or TCP/IP-Internet to make Robots or Automation extend to multiple places and computers. The possibilities are endless, imagination is the limit for students. But entrepreneurs need to be practical and only make equipment that have a utility and sensible market scope.

The circuits and code have some errors, The documentation is not complete.
DVM = digital volt meter MVS = milli volt source

Wednesday, February 07, 2018

Aircraft Dashboard Clock Mimic Gadget

Digital Clock with 24 hour Military Time Format, Aircraft Dashboard Chronometer Like Looks, Date, Time, Weekday and Week of Year. Clock Gadget, looks like a Clock in Cockpit Dashboard. It is a Mimic of A Flight Chronometer Instrument. It shows Time and Date close to Military Time-Date format. It also has week number and weekday display.

Aircraft Clock xml code

Screenshot of Aircraft Cockpit Clock

Aircraft Cockpit Clock

Clock Gadget, looks like a Clock in Cockpit of Aircraft Dashboard. It is a Mimic of A Flight Chronometer Instrument. It shows Time and Date close to Military Time-Date format. It also has week number and weekday display. This Project includes an Analog Bargraph Clock Gadget on the same code.

Aircraft Clock Source GitHub  and Aircraft Clock Page

This Project includes an Analog Bargraph Clock Gadget on the same code.

Analog Clock, Linear Display of Time Elapsed using Bargraph, Shows Week Days and Month Days Passed. The WD indicates Complete Week Days passed and MD is Month Days Completed. This is not the date, date is MD+1. This is an example of CSS Animation, that was the Motivation for this clock.

Thursday, February 01, 2018

Pin Note Web Gadget

This is a Tiny memo Pad that will have Sticky Notes on Webpage, saves in cookies. This Web Gadget was for the Google Homepage, Web-page or blog. Pin Notes

Screenshot and help of Gadget

Pin Note Web Gadget

Note - This is toy or fun gadget not for serious note taking, it is more an example of css-dhtml-js for study or learning.

24 March 2010 - Data Freedom in PSV, Pipe Separated like | and ||. Now you can move to a competing Notes Service Provider if you feel our interface or features are not just right. 

This is not an electronics gadget, but i wanted to try building it, The inspiration for this has been Stickies. Which i have been using for some time. So i built this for my learning.

The Source gives some ideas of css and JavaScript. The form elements blends with the note, The Note also serves as a dynamic menu for paper color and pencil color.

Development

This was later enhanced to the Jot a Note gadget. Jot a Note then became Jot Desktop.

Friday, January 05, 2018

Reliability in Axial and Radial Plastic Capacitors

The Axial capacitors like Metalized Polypropylene MPP are more reliable in comparison of their radial counterparts of same voltage rating.

Also note 440V AC Continuous rating reads and translates differently than 630V DC Max. Overrating is an important step in reliability for engineers.

High Energy Circuits

Radial plastic caps, in mass production, due to various inconsistencies in production or quality measurement, are not recommended for high voltage unless its is a Manufacturer known for long term reliability and quality track record.

Reliability in Axial and Radial Plastic Capacitors

The radial caps when being wound, stretches the film/dielectric or weakens the dielectric at some areas as the turn is sharp, top/bot. This is possible unless the winding machine relaxes strain around the turns. In a Axial that may not be a problem as the film has more uniform stretch. The other reason could be that the Film is wrapped a little on corners or compressed on epoxy impregnation. It could also be low quality non-uniform PP material.

Power Electronics & Solar Energy

Components Manufacturers have to spruce up a Raw-Material and Component Quality, not by red-tape but by actually improving the manufacturing and procurement processes, as the quantities involved are huge.

Thursday, January 04, 2018

LED Lighting - The Future is Here

LED Lighting is more important than you think it is. Start Using Alternative Energy, like Wind Power and Solar, Tidal and even Magmatic.

LED Lighting at Wikipedia

On September 24, 2009 the DOE announced that Philips Lighting North America was the first to submit lamps in the category to replace the standard 60 W A-19 "Edison screw fixture" light bulb, with a design based on their earlier "EnduraLED" consumer product.

LED Lighting - The Future is Here

On August 3, 2011, DOE awarded the prize in the 60 W replacement category to Philips bulb after 18 months of extensive testing. The 10-W, 900-lumen Philips bulb was made available to consumers in April 2012.

The same day, CREE demonstrated a prototype lamp producing 1330 lumens with a mere 8.7 W of input power. While the CREE lamp has not undergone DOE reliability testing and no commercial release date was promised, it is an indication that the "21st Century Lamp" performance levels may soon be within reach of commercial products.

Tuesday, January 02, 2018

Front End Security for SMPS

Now we have smps in most everything. AC Adapters and CFL lamps and many Home Consumer Electronics. The Failures of these units are on the rise. The Cooper transformers are out, but the SMPS reliability is falling.

Designing and manufacturing a SMPS facing a 230V input constantly, is not easy. You cannot Mutz your way in this, in a cost-cutting spree of this Vital Organ, just to have a competitive advantage of 'a lower cost product' (read cheap).

Now 230 V AC 50 Hz is not what you think it has, it has EMI-RFI, Inductive Kickback Spikes from the neighborhood, resonating and ringing with the RLC network that your home wiring forms. Lightning and Atmospheric Static that may strike at the weakest part on the SMPS. Wrong wiring, 3 phase mess ups. short circuits, falling tree branches, thunderstorm. Your SMPS is facing the Real Harsh Cruel world and the best part, they left off the Security Department to keep costs low. The critters in the box get zapped for no fault of theirs.

Front End Security for SMPS

There is one difficult way out of this, we move to a 24V DC standard within the house, it is safe and the Box outside the house faces all the Electrical Environment Variables and Unpredictability. This box that charges the battery and steps down the mains voltage can be protected well. Protection on this one unit, protects all the equipment in the Home or office. This is the Civilized way electricity should be used in Homes and Offices. Easy to integrate with Alternative energy. Factories can have all the High Voltage they want.

When a good technical collaborator is involved, quality is given due respect, the products are affordable yet robust. Some firms cut off vital circuitry (these happen in mechanical, electrical and chemical field too) to keep the product cost low. These products will work well in a Mains conditioned environment which is only affordable in some companies and never at homes.

The Security system consists of something that a Surge Protector from Belkin has. Let us see the traditional way, We need Gas Discharge Tube Lightning Arrestors. Then Varistors, Thermistors, X and Y caps and the Common Mode Choke Coils. A high voltage and high current fast acting fuse or trip circuit. Overrating of Mosfet and caps that face the high voltages. Using HV Back-to-Back zeners with fuses. Snubber Plastic HV self healing caps and Fast Switching diodes to absorb the inductive spikes.

Do it within the budget you have. SMPS should withstand 1.2KV microsecond pulses. 600V millisecond pulses and 400V for a few seconds. 300V AC for many minutes. Else let us go 24V Standard.

Other Protection devices your house or lab may needs to have. CVT - Constant Voltage Transformer, 1:1 Isolation Transformer, Servo Motorized Auto-transformer Stabilizer, Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker, HV-Relay Trip Circuit, Overload Current Relay Trip Circuit, MCB, Switched Triac or Relay, Copper Transformer Stabilizer with Layer or Layer Primary Insulation to protect against high voltage. This transformer should have earth shield, guarded terminals, primary windings should not slip layers, Vacuum Impregnated. 

May the Earth be good to you ! - Means - the earthing in your Home of Office should be excellent and do not compromise on Wiring Insulation and Switchgear. Let the wires outside have concrete gutters which are closed so that water or rodents do not get to the cables.

Read more at my Power Electronics Section